Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is pain or discomfort in the pelvic region, the area below your belly button. Some women describe the pain as a stabbing, burning or heavy feeling. The pain may be constant or variable and may range in intensity from mild to severe. Pain caused by injury often has a sudden onset, while pelvic pain resulting from an infectious or disease process may develop slowly and persist or worsen over time. Most women experience pain in the lower abdomen (below the belly button) time to time. It may be associated with their periods. Pelvic pain treatment 


Pain may be severe and steady or it may be intermittent, dull and aching type or may be felt just as a pressure sensation deep within. Some women may have pain during sexual intercourse. 


Causes originating from the reproductive system-

  • Endometriosis (This is a painful condition where tissue that is similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus.)
  • Simple spasmodic dysmenorrhea (excessive cramping pain during periods)
  • Pelvic inflammatory diseases
    (Infections of the lower pelvic organs can lead to scarring and abdominal pain)
  • Pelvic congestion
    (Large veins around your uterus and ovaries, similar to varicose veins, may cause pelvic pain)
  • Fibroids, which may cause a deep, dragging pain
  • Ovarian remnants
    (Some women experience pain even after removal of the uterus. This may be due to a small piece of ovary left inside in which painful cysts could develop.)
  • Ovarian cysts could cause pelvic pain, especially sharp or sudden if they get ruptured or twisted

Causes originating from the gastrointestinal system, for example

Causes originating from the urinary system
Bladder inflammations or urinary infections can all lead to symptoms of pelvic pain.

Pregnancy related causes

  • Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus)
  • Abortions

Pain related to adhesions: Adhesions are scar tissues which are formed as a result of previous surgery or inflammation. These can lead to a dragging type of pelvic pain.


Work up will depend upon the history, clinical examination etc. Apart from routine lab blood and urine tests, a pelvic ultrasound is of great help. Laparoscopy is considered as the gold standard in identification of the cause of the pain.


Treatment is directed at the identified cause and laparoscopy affords a greater advantage over open surgery because of greater magnification and better identification of pathology.


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