Ovarian Cyst

An ovarian cyst is a closed sac like structure which contains fluids. They develop in the ovaries of a woman. This condition can occur in any age. There are two types of ovarian cysts. Below are the ovarian cyst treatment.

  • FUNCTIONAL CYSTS  – (follicular cysts, luteal ovarian cysts) they are usually harmless in nature and develop during the menstrual cycle.
  • PATHOLOGICAL CYSTS – (dermoid cysts, cyst adenomas), are less common and are results of abnormal cell growth. Such cysts can be harmless or cancerous. Below are the Ovarian cyst symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment

As the name suggests ovarian cysts occur in the ovaries, they can affect one or both the ovaries. The ovaries are part of female reproductive system; they are small and have a shape similar to beans. 

Below are options for Ovarian cyst treatment.

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Ovarian Cyst Treatment:-

Treatment, if needed at all depends on the following factors:

  • Size of the cyst.
  • Type of the cyst
  • Symptoms experienced

The following options exist for

Ovarian Cyst Treatment

  • SURGERY

Surgery should be done if the symptoms is severe. There are two options in terms of surgeries the first one is laparoscopy and the other is laparotomy.

  • LAPAROSCOPY 

A laparoscope (a small, lighted microscope) is passed into your abdomen through minimal incisions. Most types of cysts can be removed using laparoscopy. This is done so that the surgeon can see the internal organs. Laparoscopy is more preferred compare to laparotomy because of fast recovery time.

  • LAPAROTOMY 

If there is a sign of cancer in cyst then surgeons preferred laparotomy.

CAUSES:-

The causes of ovarian cysts depend on their classification:

FUNCTIONAL CYSTS

  •  FOLLICULAR OVARIAN CYSTS:

They are the most common type of cysts. The egg produced by ovaries moves into the uterus (womb). This egg grows in the follicle, which protects the egg with help of fluids. Normally when the egg is released, the follicle should burst but in some cases, the fluid contained by the follicle is not shredded even after releasing the egg, or in some cases the follicle does not release the egg itself. As a result such a follicle swells with fluid, and results in the formation of follicular ovarian cyst.

  •  LUTEAL OVARIAN CYSTS:

This are rear cysts.It develops  when corpus luteum is filled with blood. It is a  tissue which is left behind after the egg is released.

PATHOLOGICAL CYSTS

  • Dermoid cysts (cystic teratomas):

Dermoid cysts are the most common type of cysts. It is a pathological cysts for women under the age of 30. It forms due to a totipotential germ cell (a primary oocyte). A totipotential germ cell is a cell that can form all orders of cells that are required to form mature tissues. Dermoid cysts contain bone, skin, hair and sometimes even other tissues (e.g. teeth).

  • Cyst adenomas:

Cyst adenomas are more common to postmenopausal women. Such ovarian cysts develop from cells which cover the outer part of the ovaries. Since they are not inside the ovary they have potential to grow considerably large.

RISK FACTORS:-

The two major risk factors to be considered are endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome.

In this disease the tissue (called as Endometrium) which normally lines the inside of the womb/uterus and which is normally shed off with blood during periods, grows outside the uterus and is seen involving ovaries and many other organs. Such types of cysts are very painful.

  • POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME:

In this condition the follicles in which an egg normally grows and matures does not open and results in the formation of cysts.

SYMPTOMS:-

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms related to menstrual cycle & sexual activity:

  • Pain during sexual intercourse, especially during deep penetration.
  • Irregular periods.
  • Chronic low back or pelvic pain during the menstrual cycle.
  • Vaginal pain or spotty bleeding from the vagina.
  • Infertility

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms related to digestion & abdomen

  • Indigestion
  • Pain in the pelvic or lower abdomen area.
  • Pain during urination or bowel movement.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Problems in having bowel movements & feeling pressure to have a bowel movement.
  • Abdominal distension.
  • Bloating & feeling of abdominal fullness.
  • Abdominal tenderness.

Others

  • A feeling of lower abdominal/pelvic pressure or fullness.
  • Problems controlling urination.

DIAGNOSIS:-

The diagnosis of cysts is done on the basis of its size and its composition, i.e. does it contain only fluids or a mixture of fluids and solids. In the case of the former the cysts are likely to be benign, while in the case of latter, further tests may be required to determine the result. Following are different procedures used to ascertain the presence and nature of the cysts:

  • PREGNANCY TEST

A pregnancy test can be useful to ascertain cysts caused due do corpus luteum.

  • PELVIC ULTRASOUND

Pelvic ultrasound is done to check if there is a cyst present using the ultra sound waves. With the help of this procedure the doctor can identify the size , location and type of cyst.

  • LAPAROSCOPY

In laparoscopy the surgeons uses a laparoscope – a small, lighted instrument which is inserted through incisions in order to ascertain the cyst.

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