Adenomyosis is a common disorder in which the tissue that normally lines the womb grows inside the muscular walls of the womb. The resultant extra tissue leads to a painful menstrual cycle and pelvic pain. This disease is also known as uterine endometriosis. It is non cancerous. Women over the age of 35 have risk of getting Adenomyosis . It is also common for women whose estrogen level are high than normal. Below are the options for adenomyosis treatment.
The method of treatment depends on factors such as:
- Desire for childbirth
- The number of years the patient is away from reaching her menopause.
Anti-inflammatory medicines : If the patient is nearing menopausal age then anti-inflammatory medicines can be used to subdue the pain till she reaches menopause. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the menstrual blood flow and help in controlling the pain. The medicines should be taken 2-3 days before the start of the menstrual cycle and should be continued in the cycle as well.
Hormone medications: Hormone medications include birth control pills containing combined estrogen-progestin, vaginal rings and hormone containing patches. They are used to lessen the severe bleeding & pain associated with adenomyosis. Progestin only birth control pills are known to cause absence of menstrual periods which may help in providing relief from symptoms.
Specific surgical treatment for women requiring conservation of uterus : Women experiencing symptoms due to adenomyomas – the focal region of adenomyosis resulting in a mass, may undergo laparoscopic resection or removal of these lesions. This procedure does not involve removal of uterus and thus preserves fertility and uterine function. Below are the options for adenomyosis treatment.
Hysterectomy: If your pain is extremely severe and menopause is years away then hysterectomy is considered. Hysterectomy is the only treatment to completely cure adenomyosis. Hysterectomy is a procedure wherein the womb/uterus is removed, therefore such an option should be only pursued to if the patient as no desire of childbirth. Your ovaries are not affected by adenomyosis and can be left in the body.
The exact cause of Adenomyosis is not known, but research points out to the following factors:
- Invasive growth of tissue: According to experts the condition is caused because of endometrial cell growing in the muscle of uterine wall.
- Uterine inflammation due to childbirth: Other experts suggest a link between childbirth & adenomyosis i.e. inflammation of the uterus during the first menstrual period after child birth (postpartum periods) results in breaking of the normal boundary of the uterine wall which causes adenomyosis.
- Stem cells: In Recent theory bone According to a recent theory, bone marrow stem cells invade the uterine musculature which can lead to adenomyosis.
The factors below enhance the risk of adenomyosis:
- Uterine surgery: Previous surgeries involving any fibroid surgeries and C section can also lead to forming adenomyosis.P
- Childbirth: Inflammation because of pregnancy also one of the cause for adenomyosis.
- Age: Women in their 30s are more likely to develop adenomyosis.
Symptoms during menstrual cycle:
- Severe cramps
- Heavy menstrual bleeding
- Prolonged cycle
- Clotting during menstrual cycle
Below is the procedure for Diagnosis of adenomyosis.
Let’s discuss these procedures in detail:
Ultrasound: The ultrasound technique used to diagnose adenomyosis is known as transvaginal ultrasound scan. Here the doctor inserts the ultrasound device 2-3 inches into the vaginal opening in order to ascertain the disorder.
MRI: If the doctor is unable to determine adenomyosis with ultrasound he/she may order a MRI scan of the uterus. It should be noted that MRI is not an option pregnant women.