Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)  also known as Abnormal Uterine Bleeding is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding during a woman’s reproductive years. 

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Abnormal Uterine bleeding may present as –

  • Heavy periods
  • Irregular bleeding and spotting
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Continuous bleeding
  • Bleeding/spotting after menopause
  • Bleeding associated with pregnancy states.

CAUSES

Causes may be many and a proper work up and clinical approach is required in each woman to reach a proper diagnoses.

Some common causes are-

  • Hormonal imbalance (as in PCOD)
  • Presence of polyps /fibroids/infection in the uterus
  • Pregnancy related bleeding problems
  • Gynaecologic Cancers
  • Rarely some medical diseases like thyroid problems ,liver diseases, medications, stress etc.

DIAGNOSIS

Apart from basic blood investigations, a few special investigations may be needed according to each patient’s special case, like

  • USG (Sonography)
  • Special blood hormonal assays
  • Hysteroscopy
  • (This is the visualization of the uterus through endoscope, which gives a definite picture of the inside of a woman’s uterus)
  • Pap smear or Colposcopy
  • (These are special tests to examine the mouth of the uterus under magnification and take biopsy of the abnormal area)
  • D & C (Dilatation and Curettage)
  • (This is scraping the inside lining of the uterus and sending it for microscopic examination

TREATMENT

  • Intrauterine device (IUD).
  • Birth control pills.
  • Hysterectomy.
  • Endometrial ablation

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