Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) also known as Abnormal Uterine Bleeding is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding during a woman’s reproductive years.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
Abnormal Uterine bleeding may present as –
- Heavy periods
- Irregular bleeding and spotting
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse
- Continuous bleeding
- Bleeding/spotting after menopause
- Bleeding associated with pregnancy states.
Causes may be many and a proper work up and clinical approach is required in each woman to reach a proper diagnoses.
Some common causes are-
- Hormonal imbalance (as in PCOD)
- Presence of polyps /fibroids/infection in the uterus
- Pregnancy related bleeding problems
- Gynaecologic Cancers
- Rarely some medical diseases like thyroid problems ,liver diseases, medications, stress etc.
Apart from basic blood investigations, a few special investigations may be needed according to each patient’s special case, like
- USG (Sonography)
- Special blood hormonal assays
- (This is the visualization of the uterus through endoscope, which gives a definite picture of the inside of a woman’s uterus)
- Pap smear or Colposcopy
- (These are special tests to examine the mouth of the uterus under magnification and take biopsy of the abnormal area)
- D & C (Dilatation and Curettage)
- (This is scraping the inside lining of the uterus and sending it for microscopic examination
- Intrauterine device (IUD).
- Birth control pills.
- Endometrial ablation